Archive for the Category » Bottle feeding «

The Free Lunch Is Always an Effective Marketing Tool: Why WIC Must Change

The mothers of about half the babies born in the USA are offered free infant formula, paid for with tax revenues via the Women, Infants, and Children’s Supplemental Feeding Program, WIC. This dooms the majority of them to receive formula most of the time if not from birth. This is more the result of infant formula company lobbying than wise public health policy-making. It would be simple to fix. Just charge something for the formula, if less than for the cheapest commercial alternative (which at least used to be evaporated milk). If there is concern that these women will not be able to afford it, provide them with more money via welfare. The point is not to deprive them or their babies but to ensure than bottle feeding costs money and breastfeeding does not–just like is the case for everyone else.  Click here to access the full text of this letter to the editor of Breastfeeding Medicine.

Beyond Melamine: More Reasons Not to Use Animal Milk in Infant Feeding

This paper in the Journal of Human Lactation reviews the melamine disaster in China and points out that the basic cause (trying to mask with this fake protein that the milk sold to formula manufacturers was diluted with water), also means that one never knows how dilute animal milk is in any less regulated markets, provides another argument against feeding it to infants. (Diluted milk cannot be detected easily and is probably common. But, without melamine added, it will be an economic but not a nutritional or health problem for children over one year for whom it is not such a big part of the diet.)

Click here to open the pdf file.

Relationship of parental characteristics and feeding practices to overweight in infants and young children in Beijing, China

This is another in the remarkable series of studies Dr. Jiang Jingxiong has done on obesity in children in Beijing. It’s the one that has most closely looked at infant feeding and confirms that exclusive breastfeeding, delaying introduction of solid foods beyond 4 months and delaying introduction of infant formula beyond 4 months are each independently associated with lower risk for obesity among childen < 3 years old. Click here to open the full-text pdf file.

Vitamin A deficiency and child feeding in Beijing and Guizhou, China

This article in the World Journal of Pediatrics is based on Dr. Jiang Jing Xiang’s masters thesis at Uppsala University. It uses data from China’s first national vitamin A deficiency survey done several years earlier.

Click here to open the pdf file.

Structural Violence and Clinical Medicine: Free Infant Formula for HIV-Exposed Infants

This letter to editor in response to an article by Paul Farmer that I wrote with colleagues in PATH and EGPAF, can be read here.

Algorithms to assist in counseling on whether it is AFASS for an HIV+ mother to stop breastfeeding

During 2005-6, with input from Kathy Krasovec, help from Jennifer Marcy, and graphic design work by Jennifer Fox (all of PATH), I created two algorithms to assist counselors in advising HIV-infected mothers when it might be acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe to stop breastfeeding. If you click on “more” below, you can see the letter I wrote providing some explanation and references for desiging diets for non-breastfed infants.

I also presented them at the WHO HIV and Infant Feeding Technical Consultation in October 2006 in Geneva. These simplied versions benefitted from feedback from two groups who reviewed them at that meeting.

Click here to see the algorithms (one for infants 6-12 mo and one for older infants) in powerpoint format, each divided in two, making the text larger and easier to read.

The Promotion of Infant Food – Why and How it is Restricted

This was written for a trade magazine for the food industry called Middle East Food.

Click here to download the pdf file.


Responses of HIV-Positive Mothers to Infant Feeding Counselling as Part of the KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV Programme in South Africa

This thesis was written by Hanna Eneroth for her masters degree at Stockholm University, with me as her supervisor in Sweden and with Dr. Nigel Rollins providing support in South Africa.

Click here to download the Word file.

IMAGE: oil painting purchased in Arusha, Tanzania in 2002 from an artist from Sudan.

Breastfeeding in Bangladesh: A review of the literature

This paper is quite comprehensive up to when it was completed — in about 1996. Itself published in a hard to find journal, it reviews findings from many other hard to find sources!

Open the pdf file here.